On the side facing away from the axis or stem (dorsal).
The natural detachment of leaves, branches, flowers or fruits.
Increasing in size during fruiting.
A small dry indehiscent one-seeded fruit
Sharp, irritating to the taste
With veins converging and uniting at the apex of the leaf towards the apex or distal part of an organ; e.g., flowers in an inflorescence
(flowers) radially symmetrical
Flowers divisible in equal parts by an indefinite number of planes.
The point of an acuminate leaf; the driptip.
Having a sharp point, less than 45 degrees.
A sharp point, between 45 and 90 degrees.
On the side facing the axis or stem (ventral)
In contact but not fused together; e.g., floral parts
Attached to some other organ
Not in the usual place, e.g. roots on stems, or buds produced in other than terminal or axillary positions on stems.
Winged; as a stem or petiole
Soil material deposited by running water in recent geological time.
An arrangement of one leaf per node along the stem. In this book used as alternate s. 1. comprising spiral, distichous and alternate s.s.
Stem-clasping, when the base of a sessile leaf or a stipule is dilated at the base, and embraces the stem.
Cross connection of branches or roots; union of one vein with another, the connection forming a reticulation.
(ovules) with hilum and microphyle close together and chalaza at the other end
A young tropical soil originating from weathering of volcanic ash.
The male element; the stamens as a unit of the flower.
The occurrence of leaves with distinct form and size
The part of the stamen containing the pollen.
Working against worms
Without petals or with a single perianth.
The tip of an organ (usually used for leaves).
At or near the apex of an organ.
With an abrupt small tip, as a leaf
Like a cobweb
With the habit of a tree; tree-like
Curved or shaped like a bow; arch-shaped
A tiny space marked on a surface; e.g., on leaves
Usually fleshy tissue (partially) surrounding the seed and fused with it at least over a small area. This term is used here also for sarcotesta, arillode etc.
A sharp external angle formed by the meeting of two surfaces.
Curving or sloping upwards
An unequal shape not divisible into two mirror images.
Ear-like lobe or appendage
The line running lengthwise through the centre of an organ or the stem or root itself.
(Inflorescence; bud) borne in the axil, i.e. the junction between leaf-stalk and stem
Hairs not attached at base but at some point in the middle.
The tissue external to the vascular cambium collectively, being the secondary phloem, cortex and periderm.
(seed dispersal) referring to the fruit which discharges its
At or near the base of an organ
Forked; divided nearly to middle line
A long, prominent and substantial point, applied particularly to prolongations of fruits.
A fruit with the middle layer of the wall well developed, with immersed seeds.
Compound leaves with two orders of pinnate branching.
Flowers containing both stamens and ovaries.
The expanded part of a leaf or petal.
A plywood in which the core layers are replaced by blocks of wood.
A common form of bluish discoloration, generally of sapwood, caused by various fungi.
The main trunk of a tree, generally from the base up to the first main branch.
Reduced leaf, usually within inflorescences.
A secondary bract on the pedicel or close under the flower.
A shape about as long as wide.
The enlargement at the base of trunks of emergent tropical trees that ranges from a small spur or swelling to massive structures, partly root, partly stem, reaching as high as 10 m up the stem, thin and flat to thick, twisted or anastomose.
A young condensed shoot in which the nodes are closely packed and the leaves are rudimentary, and that someday will grow into a shoot.
Falling off at an early stage.
Outer whorl of the perianth, usually green, consisting of sepals.
The uppermost leafy layer of a tree or a forest.
Headed, like the head of a pin in some stigmas, or collected into compact headlike clusters as in some inflorescences.
Fruit wall usually dry, splitting open in various ways.
One of the foliar units of a compound pistil or ovary; a simple pistil has only one carpel.
First bract-like leaves at the base of a twig or stem.
With a tail, usually describing a leaf apex.
Flowers borne on the stem from the old wood, separate from the leaves.
With an elongated groove.
Check (in wood)
Small separation of the wood fibres along the grain forming a crack or fissure not penetrating as far as the opposite or adjoining side of a piece of sawn timber.
A fibreboard made from depulped wood chips.
Green pigment in plants which absorbs light for photosynthesis.
With regularly arranged hairs usually projecting from an edge or margin.
Structures arising close together and forming groups.
Referring to the parts of a lobed fruit.
A sausage-shaped appendage of gland origin (e.g. in Alstonia iwahigensis, Apocynaceae).
A heterogenous soil emplaced primarily by gravitational processes (also creek and slope wash) on or at the foot of slopes.
Divided into individual leaflets.
Similarly coloured on both sides or throughout; of the same colour as a specified structure.
A three-dimensional shape, terete, with the greatest width at base.
Organs of the same kind growing together and becoming joined, though distinct in origin.
Having a more or less rounded surface.
Heart-shaped, as seen at the base of a leaf, etc., which is deeply notched.
Of leathery texture.
The inner whorl(s) of the perianth, usually coloured (not green!), consisting of petals.
Inflorescence with branched rhachis, axes and flower stalks unequal, where by the flowers are placed in a horizontal plane.
Flowers arranged to resemble a corymb.
The first leaf or leaves of a plant, already present in the seed and usually differing in shape from the later leaves.
A crop planted to prevent soil erosion and to provide humus and/or fodder.
A margin with rounded teeth.
The aerial expanse of a tree, not including the trunk; corona; a short rootstock with leaves, t e base of a tufted, herbaceous, perennial grass.
Of brittle texture.
Wedge-shaped; triangular, w row end at the point of attachment, as the bases of leaves or petals
A cup-like structure consisting of indurated (hard or fleshy) bracts at the base of the fruit and surrounding at least its lower part (Fagaceae some Lauraceae).
Branched inflorescence in which the central flower opens first (centrifugal), and in which the first branches are opposite.
Calcium carbonate inclusions, looking like sugar crystals.
Aromatic, resinous exudate usually from cut inner bark (Burseraceae).
Diameter at breast height (1.30 m).
Trees standing leafless for a part of the year, usually in the dry season.
Having the base prolonged, as in leaves where the blade is continued down- wards as a wing on petiole or stem.
Splitting open (fruits).
With a toothed edge like a saw the teeth directed outwards.
Bark with shallow, more or less round depressions.
An annular glandular outgrowth of the receptacle (shortened axis of the flower), which often secretes nectar.
Small holes, tufts of hairs or scale-like structures usually in the axils of veins, usually on the lower leaf lamina.
Within the leaf tissue various translucent or dark dots or lines present: when looking through the tissue with the aid of a strong lamp and a handlens, the leaf appears as if it is punctured by many more or less regularly spaced pinpricks or lines.
A fruit with the outer layer of the wall thin, middle layer fleshy and soft, inner layer stony or woody, enclosing the seed(s).
Venation as in the leaves of Dryobalanops (Dipterocarpaceae).
A shape broadest at the middle with smoothly and equally curving sides, ratio length: width = c. 2:1.
Shallowly notched at the apex.
Nutritive tissue within the seed if the cotyledons do not store the nutrients for germination.
A smooth edge, not toothed, lobed or cut.
Any liquid or latex flowing from cuts or damaged parts of the tree.
Provided with more or less hair-like appendages resembling eyelashes.
Bark with coarse, deep grooves.
With large patches of dead bark which fall off the trunk. There is no sharp differentiation between flaky and scaly.
Thick but soft and easily sliced, usually with a high proportion of water.
Bole with many regular ascending channels.
With a certain number of leaflets (e.g. l-foliolate, 3-foliolate etc.).
Dry fruit formed by a single carpel, splitting open along one side only.
Of any parts which are separate, not fused together.
Becoming hairless or nearly so.
A small globular vesicle containing oil, resin or other liquid, sunken in, on the surface of, or protruding from any part of a plant.
Furnished with glands.
Bluish-greyish with a waxy covering.
Clothed with long, not very stiff hairs.
Horizontal rings along the trunk of distinct texture (often of lenticels) or colour.
Of a pinnate leaf with a terminal unpaired leaflet.
Fruit not opening when ripe.
The hairy covering as a whole.
Ovary not free, but completely embedded in the enlarged receptacle and fused with it, becoming a fruit with a calyx at top.
Grouping of flowers on a plant.
Inflorescence in fruiting stage.
The part of the stem between two adjacent nodes.
Between the petioles.
Of a vein which is continuous and lies near but distinctly away from the margin of the leaf.
Secondary vein running parallel to the leaf margin; here also used if secondary veins form loopings.
Between the petiole and the stem.
The blade of a leaf; a thin flat piece of tissue.
Shape of an organ, ratio length: width = c. 5:1.
At the side.
Milky, usually sticky or rubbery exudate, generally from inner bark.
The ultimate division of a compound leaf.
The outer bark covered with spongy points or lines, through which the inner tissue can exchange gases with the atmosphere.
A long narrow shape with more or less parallel sides, more than 5 times as long as wide.
Broadly divided into rounded parts but not into separate leaflets.
When veins of the same order are connected with each other. Usually referring to secondary veins.
The edge of a leaf or other flat structure.
Whorled with a certain number of parts (e.g. 3-merous. 5-merous etc.), used for flower parts.
The central and usually the largest vein of the leaf.
Midrib projecting beyond the blade as a small, usually stiff point.
Any shape between 3 and 5 times as long as wide.
Nectar-producing glands within or outside the flower.
A point on the stem where one or more leaves are or were attached.
Broadest in the middle with almost parallel sides, ratio length: width = 3:1.
Flat shape with the outline of an egg, the broadest part above the middle.
Blunt, an angle more than 45 degrees.
One or a pair of stipules developed into a broad sheeting structure.
An arrangement of two leaves per node along the stem.
Flat shape with the outline of a circle.
Part of the pistil containing the ovules.
Flat shape with the outline of an egg, the broadest part below the middle.
Consisting of more than 3 leaflets (or veins) arising from the same point.
Three or more equally developed veins emerging from the base of the lamina and joining the margin.
Inflorescence in which the main axis bears several side branches with several flowers.
Of veins in a lamina, all running in the same direction and equally distant from one another, as in grass leaves.
Of a pinnate leaf with no terminal leaflet, the leaflets all in pairs.
Incised to near the midrib.
At an angle of about 90 degrees to an axis.
Of a flat organ with its stalk inserted on the under surface, not at the edge.
Floral envelope outside the stamens, usually differentiated in sepals and petals. Persistent — Remaining, the opposite condition of caducous.
Inner whorl(s) of perianth-leaves, together forming the corolla.
The stalk of the leaf.
The stalk of a leaflet.
Covered with hairs which are soft, weak, thin and clearly separated.
A leaf divided into two or more leaflets arranged in two rows along a common stalk or rhachis, with or without a terminal leaflet.
The female reproductive organ, composed of ovary, style, and stigma.
Of leaves when two or more major veins arise from near the base and curve upwards to near the leaf apex.
Vertical branches of roots, growing upwards through the soil to provide air for the root system.
Dry one- to many-seeded fruit, dehiscing along margin or indehiscent.
Minutely hairy, with a somewhat dense cover of very short, soft hairs.
A dense cover of short, weak, soft hairs.
Unbranched inflorescence, in which the single flowers are borne on stalks along a main axis.
Of small (tertiary) veins when distinct and looking like a net.
The main axis of a compound leaf or an inflorescence.
A wrinkled surface, covered with coarse lines or furrows.
Endosperm strongly folded and firmly coherent, in transverse section looking a bit like a molar tooth of a cow (Annonaceae).
Hairs radiating from one point, united in a mushroom-like structure.
The second rank or order of branching.
Alternate, but apparently opposite (pseudo-opposiie).
The outer whorl of a perianth, together forming the calyx.
Silky, densely covered with fine, soft, straight, appressed hairs, with a lustrous sheen and satin-like to the touch.
Toothed like a saw, the teeth directed forwards.
Without a stalk or apparently so, the stalk being very short.
Bristly, having long, erect, rigid hairs or bristles, harsh to the touch.
Not compound, of a leaf with the lamina in one piece.
Unbranched inflorescence, rhachis well developed, flowers sessile.
One leaf at each node in a spiral.
Male reproductive organ, usually consisting of a stalk (sterile filament) and a fertile pollen-bearing anther.
Star-shaped, often of hairs.
The part of the pistil, usually provided with minute papillae, which receives the pollen.
A scale-like or leaf-like appendage usually at the base of the petiole, sometimes
adnate to it, often paired.
Short or long part of the pistil which contains no ovaries and terminates in the stigma(s).
Ovaries free from all floral parts, except the very base, in fruiting stage the calyx or its scars at base.
Smoothly rounded in cross section, cylindrical.
Borne at the end of the stem and limiting its growth.
The third rank or order of branching.
Inflorescence with a clearly branched rhachis.
Indument of short (curved) hairs.
Secondary leaf venation which is straight and parallel and more or less perpendicular to the midrib.
Having the shape of a triangle.
More or less straight at the end.
A flat-topped inflorescence without rhachis and the flower stalks unequal, flowers in one plane.
One of the lines which form the structural and vascular strands of the leaf.
With shaggy hairs.
An arrangement of three or more leaves per node along the stem.
Flowers divisible in equal parts by one plane only.